Psychology CSS Paper I 2002

FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN B.P.S. – 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2002
Psychology, Paper I
Time Allowed: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100
Note: Attempt Five questions in all, including question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.

  1. How did behaviorism differ from earlier schools of psychology? What were the main objections of Gestalt Psychologists about behaviorism?

  2. What is the endocrine system? Discuss the role of various hormones in regulating normal human development.

  3. How is “Shaping” used to condition a new response? In what ways principles of operant conditioning can be used for improving educational techniques?

  4. Elucidate the differences between biogenic and sociogenic motives. How does Maslow’s hierarchy of Motives explain the relative standing of these motives? Give examples.

  5. What are the main determinants of perception? Explain the effects of learning and motivation on perception.

  6. Critically evaluate Freud’s theory of personality development.

  7. Write short notes on any TWO of the following.
    (a) Formation of opinions and attitudes (b) Prejudice (c) International tension (d) Group norms

COMPULSORY QUESTIONS
8. Write only the correct answer in your Answer Book. Don’t reproduce the questions.

1) The junction where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron is called the:
(a) Reuptake site (b) Receptor site (c) Synapse (d) Axon terminal (e) None of these

2) The autonomic nervous system differs from the somatic nervous system in that its operation is largely:
(a) Involuntary (b) Voluntary (c) Controlled by the brain (d) Controlled by the spinal chord (e) None of these

3) The most fundamental principle of perceptual organization is called the:
(a) Figure-ground relationship (b) Volley principle (c) Dark adaptation phenomenon (d) Law of closure (e) None of these

4) Which of the following phenomena was studied by parlor?
(a) Maturation (b) Animal cognition (c) Operant conditioning (d) Classical conditioning (e) None of these

5) What can occur if a person believes that a connection exists between an act and its consequences when there is no relationship between the two?
(a) Classical conditioning (b) Superstitious behavior (c) Shaping (d) Sequential learning (e) None of these

6) Advertisers place beautiful people or likeable places and objects with the products they are trying to sell because these items:
(a) Distract from the disadvantages of the products (b) Cause pleasant feelings to be evoked (c) Are part of the products’ basic qualities (d) Are just elements of scenery (e) None of these

7) The body’s natural tendency to maintain a state of internal balance or equilibrium is called:
(a) Arousal (b) Opponent process (c) Homeostasis (d) Instinct (e) None of these

8) Concerns with meeting standards of excellence and accomplishing difficult tasks refer to need for:
(a) Affiliation (b) Achievement (c) Power (d) Apperception (e) None of these

9) Which of the following condition is not associated with prolonged sensory deprivation?
(a) Inability to concentrate (b) A satisfying-relaxed feeling (c) Hallucinations (d) Confusion (e) None of these

10) Presence of others may interfere with performance due to:
(a) Social inhabitation (b) Social loafing (c) Distraction (d) All of these (e) None of these

11) Psychology has been defined by psychologists as:
(a) The study of behavior (b) The study of mental activity (c) The science that studies behavior and mental process (d) None of these (e) All of these

12) When we look at a distant object, we usually judge its size by:
(a) Object size (b) Perspective size (c) A compromise between object size and perspective size (d) Retinal size (e) None of these

13) The view that we are born with the ability to perceive the way we do it held by:
(a) Sensory psychologists (b) Nativists (c) Empiricists (d) Contemporary psychologists (e) None of these

14) The ability to focus on stimuli in which we are interested while resisting distracting stimuli is called:
(a) Concentrated attending (b) Stimulus focusing (c) Selective attention (d) Structured perceiving (e) None of these

15) In Freud’s theory of personality:
(a) The ego obeys the reality principle (b) The id operates by secondary process thinking (c) The super-ego obeys the pleasure principle (d) The ego operates by primary process thinking (e) None of these

16) Trail theory has been criticized on the ground that:
(a) Traits may be highly dependent on the situation (b) Moderator variable are often very influential (c) They often do not specify how traits are organized within the personality (d) All of the ((a), ((b) and ((c) (e) None of the ((a), ((b) and ((c)

17) When we receive mixed information about a person, we tend to base our impression on the information that is:
(a) Favorable (b) Unfavorable (c) Received first (d) Received last (e) None of these

18) Most of the social psychological research on attitude change has been generated by theories concerning:
(a) Consistency in attitudes and behavior (b) Cognitive dissonance (c) Self-perception (d) Attribution (e) None of these

19) The public opinion survey is:
(a) A passive record of opinion (b) Limited to what the public believes at one moment in time (c) Generally ignored by successful politicians (d) Increasingly helping to shape opinion as well as measure it (e) None of these

20) The objectivity of science lies in:
(a) The capability of scientists to avoid the prejudices of their society (b) The choice of question studied (c) Its methodology (d) All of these (e) None of these

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