Total Marks – 200
Marks – 100
1. Economic Geology: Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Detailed study of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits of Pakistan. Mineral based industries. Metallogeny in Pakistan.
2. Energy resources: Constitution and kinds of coal. Geology of Pakistan coal fields. Origin, migration and accumulation of natural hydro-carbons. Oil well drilling and drilling muds. Oil and
gas fields in Pakistan. Origin and occurrence of radioactive minerals. Pakistan resource of atomic energy, minerals. Geothermal energy, recovery and uses.
3. Engineering geology: Geological factors in the construction of civil engineering projects. Geology of dam sites of Pakistan. Landslides and stability of slopes. Open and subsurface evacuations. Construction materials and building stones. Site investigation and foundation analysis
4. Hydrogeology: Groundwater occurrence and types of aquifers. Movement of groundwater. Salinity and water logging. Water resources of Pakistan.
5. Exploration Geology: Geological mapping and traditional prospecting methods. Photo geology and remote sensing mineral exploration. Dispersion of trace elements and geo-chemical surveys. Geophysical techniques for prospecting of solid minerals, oil and water