Geology CSS Paper I 2001





NOTE: Attempt FIVE questions in all, including question No. 8 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry EQUAL marks.

1. Classify the fault genetically and briefly describe with the help of suitable diagrams.

2. Discuss the rock cycle and explain how it is related to plate tectonics.

3. What are the basic time stratigraphic units and their corresponding time units? Why did geologist find it necessary to establish these two kinds of units?

4. Briefly describe Phylum molluska and give its classification up to class level with ages.

5. Briefly describe the major plutonic and volcanic rocks with their composition. Give some examples from Pakistan.

6. Write a comprehensive note on Geodynamics of Pakistan.

7. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Different weathering.
(b) Primary structures of igneous rock
(c) Geomorphic cycle
(d) Metamorphic Facies


8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions.

(1) The two minerals calcite and aragonite are polymorphs. This means that they have the same:
(a) Crystal habit
(b) Hardness
(c) Crystalline structure
(d) Chemical composition
(e) Density
(f) None of these

(2) The sentence “The present is the key to the past” is a common restatement of the:
(a) Law of superposition
(b) Principle of lateral continuity
(c) Principle of uniformitarianism
(d) Law of diminishing returns
(e) Principle of cross cutting relationships
(f) None of these

(3) When a conglomerate contains particles that are sharp and angular, geologists call it:
(a) An arkose
(b) A travertine
(c) A breccia
(d) A quartz arenite
(e) A coquina
(f) None of these

(4) What type of rock makes up the greatest portion of the volume of the continental crust:
(a) Limestone
(b) Gabbro
(c) Granite
(d) Basalt
(e) Shale
(f) None of these

(5) Geologists can recognize a gap in a sequence of sedimentary rocks that represents a hiatus in the record of geologic time by locating a feature known as:
(a) An exfoliation dome
(b) Am isograd
(c) A geologic column
(d) A varve
(e) An unconformity.
(f) None of these

(6) A fossil is most useful to geologists as an index fossil if:
(a) It is only found in one particular place in the world.
(b) The species from which it formed had survived, unchanged, for an extremely long time.
(c) The species from which it formed is closely related to a modern species.
(d) It is only found in sediments deposited during a short interval in Earth’s history.
(e) It is very different in appearance from other fossils around it.
(f) None of these

(7) A geologist wants to distinguish between mineral samples by seeing how well they resist scratching. What standard should he use as the basis for comparing samples?
(a) The Richter scale
(b) Steno’s laws
(c) The Mobs scale
(d) The Hutton scale
(e) The Carnegie index.
(f) None of these

(8) Chalk, coquina, tufa and travertine are names applied to different varieties of:
(a) Mudstone
(b) Congloinetate
(c) Sandstone
(d) Evaporite
(e) Limestone
(f) None of these

(9) Seismic body waves:
(a) Travel more slowly than surface waves
(b) |May be either compressional or shear waves
(c) Are produced by the energy that is released at an earthquake epicenter.
(d) Cannot be detected by an inertial seismograph
(e) Are produced in the Earth’s outer crust
(f) None of these

(10) A geologist describing a fault discovers that rocks in the footwall block have moved upward, relative to rocks in the hanging wall block. What kind of fault has he discovered?
(a) A strike-slip fault
(b) A transform fault
(c) A reverse fault
(d) A normal fault
(e) An oblique fault
(f) None of these

(11) According to the 19th century geologist who first developed the idea, a geosyncline:
(a) Filled almost entirely with volcanic rocks
(b) A huge fold in the middle of craton
(c) Produced by continental convergence
(d) A great trough that gradually deepens as it fills
(e) Produced by seafloor spreading
(f) None of these

(12) All of the deep earthquakes in the world are associated with:
(a) Spreading centers
(b) Mantle plumes
(c) Ocean trenches
(d) Plate triple junctions
(e) Continent al shelves
(f) None of these

(13) The oldest rocks on the Earth are found:
(a) In accreted terrains
(b) On mud-ocean ridges
(c) In cratons
(d) An orogens
(e) In subduction zones
(f) None of these

(14) One important outcome of H. F. Reid’s study of the great 1906 earthquakes in San Francisco was the development of a new concept called:
(a) Isostasy
(b) Elastic rebound
(c) Free oscillations
(d) Mantle convection
(e) Risk assessment
(f) None of these

(15) Ophiolite complexes that are located high in the Himalayas Mountains of Asia were probably once pieces of:
(a) An island arc
(b) A craton
(c) The outer core
(d) The oceanic crust
(e) A continental shelf
(f) None of these

(16) What part of the Earth is immediately beneath the Moho?
(a) The outer core
(b) The asthenophere
(c) The inner core
(d) The lower lithosphere
(e) The mesosphere
(f) None of these

(17) Andesitic magma is commonly produced by:
(a) Wet partial melting in subduction zones
(b) Friction in fold and thrust mountains
(c) Compression due to deep burial
(d) Pressure release at midocean ridges
(e) Heat rising in mantle plumes
(f) None of these

(18) Porosity is a measure of:
(a) The percentage of a sediment’s (or a rock’s) volume that is open space
(b) How high the water pressure in a rock or sediment can be
(c) The shape and average size of open spaces in a rock or sediment
(d) How well the open spaces in a rock or sediment are connected to each other
(e) How easily water will flow through a rock or sediment
(f) None of these

(19) Geologists use the equation called Darcy’s Law of calculate:
(a) The depth to the water table
(b) The discharge through an aquifer
(c) The water pressure in an aquifer
(d) The volume of an aquifer
(e) The porosity of an aquifer
(f) None of these

(20) A sinkhole is caused by:
(a) Pumping water from a well
(b) Collapse of the land over a cave
(c) A violent eruption of heated groundwater
(d) Tectonic settling between normal faults
(e) Melting of buried ice
(f) None of these

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