Geology KP PMS Paper II Syllabus

Geology
Total Marks – 200

Paper II
Marks – 100

1. Economic Geology: Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Detailed study of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits of Pakistan. Mineral based industries. Metallogeny in Pakistan.

2. Energy resources: Constitution and kinds of coal. Geology of Pakistan coal fields. Origin, migration and accumulation of natural hydro-carbons. Oil well drilling and drilling muds. Oil and
gas fields in Pakistan. Origin and occurrence of radioactive minerals. Pakistan resource of atomic energy, minerals. Geothermal energy, recovery and uses.

3. Engineering geology: Geological factors in the construction of civil engineering projects. Geology of dam sites of Pakistan. Landslides and stability of slopes. Open and subsurface evacuations. Construction materials and building stones. Site investigation and foundation analysis

4. Hydrogeology: Groundwater occurrence and types of aquifers. Movement of groundwater. Salinity and water logging. Water resources of Pakistan.

5. Exploration Geology: Geological mapping and traditional prospecting methods. Photo geology and remote sensing mineral exploration. Dispersion of trace elements and geo-chemical surveys. Geophysical techniques for prospecting of solid minerals, oil and water

Geology KP PMS Paper I Syllabus

Geology
Total Marks – 200

Paper I
Marks – 100

1. General Geology: Earth as a planet, its origin and age, internal structure of the earth and lithospheric plates, internal and external geological processes such as earthquakes, volcanism, weathering, erosion and deposition, geomorphic cycles

2. Structural geology: Primary sedimentary structures, mechanical properties of rocks, description and classification of secondary structures. Structures in metamorphic rocks. Orogeny and geosynclines in plate tectonic framework. Major tectonic features of the earth. Geodynamics of Pakistan

3. Paleontology: Fossils and their preservation. Morphology, evolution and geologic distribution of major invertebrate phyla. Micropaleontology of foraminifers, vertebrate and plant fossil

4. Stratigraphy: Stratigraphic nomenclature and stratigraphic codes. Principles of correlation. Sedimentary basins in Pakistan and detailed stratigraphy of type sections

5. Mineralogy: Chemical composition of the earth crust. Minerals – their physical and chemical properties. Space lattice, symmetry classes and crystal systems. Crystal optics. Atomic structure of crystals and X-Ray diffraction. Detailed study of important rock forming minerals.

6. Petrology: Origin and evolution of magma, binary and ternary silicate systems. Description of important plutonic and volcanic associations. Sedimentary environments and processes. Petrography of major types of sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism, metamorphic zones and facies. Description of principle types of metamorphic rocks, metamorphism and magnetism in relation to plate tectonics.

Geology Punjab PMS Paper II Syllabus

Paper II

Total Marks: 100

Earth Resources:

Fossil fuels, Nuclear mineral resources, Renewable energy resources, hydropower and geothermal energy, Water cycle, Surface water, Ground water, construction materials including those for concrete and aggregate, sand gravels, cement making and building stones; Fundamentals of Matellogeny and plate tectonics with reference to Pakistan. Uranium and strategic metals.

Engineering Geology:

Fundamentals of Engineering Geology. Soil and rock properties. Landslides classification for slopes in rock and soil, Excavation principles in rock and soil. Stability of slopes – analysis. Site investigation and instrumentation. Dam sites of Pakistan (elementary analysis).

Remote Sensing and GIS:

Introduction to the filed of remote sensing. Earth satellite systems for remote sensing. Applications in geological mapping, mineral prospecting, structural geology, geohydrology, engineering geology and geomorphology. Principles of geographic information system (GIS) including an overview of data structure, data types, methods of data analysis and cartographic modeling.

Climate and Climate Change:

Scientific bases of the climate change phenomenon, climates of the past and theories of climate change. Impacts of a changing climate in different regions of the world, and mitigation strategies. Earth as a planet, its origin and composition. Rock forming major minerals. Fundamental description and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Processes of Geomorphology both internal and external. Peneplain concept. Valley formation and Drainage patterns.



Glacial landforms

Fossils, fossilization, modes of fossil preservation, geological signification of fossils. Geological timescale. Principles of stratigraphy, stratigraphic code and nomenclature, stratigraphy of Salt Range. Study of major structures i.e. Folds, Faults, Joints, Cleavage and linear structure. Fundamental concepts of Engineering Geology and Geohydrology Introduction to the concept of Environmental Geology and Global Climate Change. Fossils Fuels, hydropower, Geothermal Energy, Nuclear minerals, Renewable energy.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Albarade, F., (2003), Geochemistry: An Introduction, Cambridge Press.

2. Barnes, J.W. and Lisle, R.J. (2004), Basic Geological Mapping, John Wiley & Sons.

3. Bell, F.G., (2004), Engineering Geology and Construction, Spon Press, N.Y.

4. Bender, F.K. and Raza H.A.(1995), Geology of Pakistan, Gebruder Borntraeger.

5. Best, M.G. (2003) Igneous and metamorphic Petrology, Blackwell Science

6. Davis, G.H. and Reynolds, S.J. (1996), Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, John Wiley & Sons.

7. Demers, M.N. (2005) Fundamentals of Geographic Information System, John Wiley & Sons.

8. Dobrin, M.B. and Savit, Ch.H. (1988), Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw Hill.

9. Emery , D. and Myers, K.J. (1996), Sequence Stratigraphy, Oxford, Blackwell.

10. Hudak, P.F. (2005), Principles of Hydrogeology, 3rd Ed. CRC Press

11. Kazmi, A.H. and Abbas, S.G. (2001), Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan, Orient Petroleum Inc.

12. Kazmi, A.H. and Jan, M.Q. (1997) Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan, Graphic Publishers.

13. Keary, P and Vine, F.J. (1996) Global Tectonics, Blackwell.

14. Montgomery, C.W., (2005) Environmental Geology, McGraw Hill.

15. North, F.K. (1985) Petroleum Geology, Allen & Unwin.

16. Plummer, (2005), Physical Geology, Mcgeay and Carlson.

17. Raup, D.M. and Stanley, S.M. (1985), Principles of Paleontology, W.H. Freeman & Co.

18. Sam Boggs (1987), Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

19. Shah. S.I. (1977) Stratigraphy of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan.

20. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basics, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPPCC).

21. Thomas M.L, and Ralph, W.K. (2003) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley & Sons.

22. Willam H.B. (1990) Principles of Mineralogy, Oxford University Press.

23. Yeung, Lo.C.P. and Lal, A.K. (2003) Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information System, Prentice Hall.



Geology Punjab PMS Paper I Syllabus

PAPER – I

Total Marks: 100

Physical Geology:

Earth as a member of the solar system; its origin, age, composition and internal structure. Geomorphic processes

Structural Geology:

Physical properties of rocks and rock behavior in different tectonic environments; deformation by fracturing and folding; interpretation of linear and planar elements.

Paleontology:

Paleontological principles and techniques and their application to the evolution of life, the ecological structure of ancient biological communities, and the history of the earth.

Stratigraphy and Sedimentology:

Principles of stratigraphy; Stratigraphic record and nomenclature, Geological time scale, Stratigraphy of Salt Range. Origin, transportation and deposition of sediments; biostratigraphic dating and correlation; Sedimentary processes and environments.

Mineralogy/ Petrology:

Crystal chemistry; crystal growth and mineral genesis, physicochemical principles governing crystal structures. Mineralogical, chemical, textural, and structural properties of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; their origin and relations to evolution of the Earth crust and mantle including rocks of both the continents and ocean basins.

Geochemistry:

chemical processes involved in the development of the earth and distribution of the elements in the earth‟s crust, atmosphere and ocean. Physical chemistry of soils including soil mineralogy (formation, relative stability, ion exchange properties) and surface chemistry. Principles of thermodynamics. Application of thermo chemistry to high and low temperature processes.

 



 

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Albarade, F., (2003), Geochemistry: An Introduction, Cambridge Press.

2. Barnes, J.W. and Lisle, R.J. (2004), Basic Geological Mapping, John Wiley & Sons.

3. Bell, F.G., (2004), Engineering Geology and Construction, Spon Press, N.Y.

4. Bender, F.K. and Raza H.A.(1995), Geology of Pakistan, Gebruder Borntraeger.

5. Best, M.G. (2003) Igneous and metamorphic Petrology, Blackwell Science

6. Davis, G.H. and Reynolds, S.J. (1996), Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, John Wiley & Sons.

7. Demers, M.N. (2005) Fundamentals of Geographic Information System, John Wiley & Sons.

8. Dobrin, M.B. and Savit, Ch.H. (1988), Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw Hill.

9. Emery , D. and Myers, K.J. (1996), Sequence Stratigraphy, Oxford, Blackwell.

10. Hudak, P.F. (2005), Principles of Hydrogeology, 3rd Ed. CRC Press

11. Kazmi, A.H. and Abbas, S.G. (2001), Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan, Orient Petroleum Inc.

12. Kazmi, A.H. and Jan, M.Q. (1997) Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan, Graphic Publishers.

13. Keary, P and Vine, F.J. (1996) Global Tectonics, Blackwell.

14. Montgomery, C.W., (2005) Environmental Geology, McGraw Hill.

15. North, F.K. (1985) Petroleum Geology, Allen & Unwin.

16. Plummer, (2005), Physical Geology, Mcgeay and Carlson.

17. Raup, D.M. and Stanley, S.M. (1985), Principles of Paleontology, W.H. Freeman & Co.

18. Sam Boggs (1987), Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

19. Shah. S.I. (1977) Stratigraphy of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan.

20. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basics, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPPCC).

21. Thomas M.L, and Ralph, W.K. (2003) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley & Sons.

22. Willam H.B. (1990) Principles of Mineralogy, Oxford University Press.

23. Yeung, Lo.C.P. and Lal, A.K. (2003) Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information System, Prentice Hall.



Geology CSS Syllabus Suggested Readings

 

S.No. Title Author
1. Physical Geology Charles Plummer, David McGeary, Diane Carlson,
2. Physical Geology Charles (Carlos) Plummer, Diane Carlson
3. Principles of Physical Geology Holmes, A
4. Principles of Paleontology Raup, D.M. & Stanley, S.M
5. Vertebrate Paleontology Romer, A.S
6. Invertebrate Paleontology and evolution Clarkson, E.N.K
7. Stratigraphy of Pakistan Shah,  S.M.I.
8. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy Boggs, S
9. Stratigraphy and historical geology of Pakistan Kazmi, A.H and Abbasi, I.A
10. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Best, M.G.,
11. Introduction to Optical Mineralogy Nesse, W.D
12. An Atlas of Minerals in Thin Section Schulze, D.J.,
13. Minerals and Rocks Klein, C.,
14. Mineral Characterisation and Processing Mohapatra, B.K., Misra, V
15. Principles of Mineralogy William. H.B.,
16. Mineralogy Perkins, D
17. Plate Tectonics – Geodynamics Moores, E.M. & Twiss, R.J
18. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions George H. Davis, Stephen J. Reynolds, Charles F. Kluth
19. Structural Geology Twiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M.,
20. Carbonate Sedimentology Tucker, M.E. & Wright, V.P
21. Applied Sedimentology Selly, R.C.,
22. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks Boggs Jr. S
23. Sedimentary Rocks Pettijohn, F.J
24. Introduction to Applied Geophysics Burger  R.H., Sheehan, A. & Jones, C
25. Geophysical Methods in Geology Sharma, P.V
26. The Solid Earth: An Introduction to Global Geophysics Fowler, CMR
27. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Best, M.G
28. Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic Blatt, H., Tracy, R.& Owens,

D

29. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Best, M.G.,
30. Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic Blatt, H., Tracy, R. & Owens,

D

31. Metamorphic Petrology Turner, F.J.,
32. Sequence Stratigraphy Emery, D. & Myers, K.J.,
33. Elements of Petroleum Geology Richard C. Selley,
34. Petroleum Geology North, F.K.,
35. Geology of Pakistan Bender, F.K.  & Raza, H.A.,
36. Engineering Geology: Principles and Practice David George Price, Michael de Freitas
37. Engineering Geology F G Bell
38. Fundamentals of Engineering Geology Bell,  F.A.G.,
39. Environmental Geology Montgomery, C.W.,
40. Geology of Himalaya, Karakuram, Hindukush in Pakistan Tahirkheli, R.A.K.,
41. Geology of Pakistan Bender, F.K. & Raza,
42. Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan Kazmi, A.H and Abbasi, I.A
43. Economic Geology: Principles and Practice Walter L. Pohl
44. Directory of Mineral Deposits of Pakistan Zaki, A.,
45. An Introduction to Ore Geology Evans, A.M.,
46. Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of Pakistan Kazmi, A.H. & Abbas, S.G.,
47. Introduction to Mineral Exploration Moon, C.J., Whateley, M.K.G.

and Evans, A.M.

48. Energy Resources Brown and Skipsy
49. Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2012 Ministry of Petroleum and

Natural Resources

Hydrocarbon Development

Institute of Pakistan.

Islamabad


Geology CSS Syllabus

Geology (100 Marks)

Part- I (50-marks)

I. Introduction to Physical Geology

Introduction and scope of geology, its importance and relationship with other sciences, Earth as a member of the solar system; its origin, age, composition and internal structure, Introduction to rocks and mineral, Weathering and erosion, Isostasy, Geological Time Scale.

II. Stratigraphy and Paleontology

Principles of stratigraphy; laws of superposition and faunal succession. Geological time scale with divisions. Classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic units: lithostratigraphic units, biostratigraphic units and chronostratigraphic units.

Introduction to fossils and their significance; modes of fossilization, Study of morphology, range and broad classification of major invertebrate phyla; Introduction to micro fossils; Introduction to Paleobotany; Introduction and classification of major vertebrates; Introduction to micropaleontology

III. Mineralogy

Classification of minerals; Study of internal structure; polymorphism and isomorphism; paragenesis; Physical and optical properties of the common silicate and non-silicate mineral groups; Introduction to crystallography; elements of symmetry, study; normal classes of crystallographic systems.

IV. Structural Geology and Tectonics

Stress-strain concepts; factors which control the mechanical behavior of materials; Folds, Faults, Joints, Foliation: terminology, classification and relationship with bedding; Lineation, Unconformity.
Plate tectonics theory; Geological evidences for continental drift; Sea-floor spreading; Oceanic ridges; Continental rifts; Intra-oceanic islands; Hot spot and Mantle plumes; Wilson Cycle; Tectonic framework of Pakistan.

V. Petrology and Petrography

Introduction, classification and description of sedimentary rocks; origin; transportation and deposition of sediments; Texture of sedimentary rocks; Sedimentary structures, their classification, morphology and significance; Composition, origin, differentiation and evolution of magma; Classification of igneous rocks; Mode of occurrences and types of extrusive rocks; Texture and structure of igneous rocks; Introduction to metamorphism; Types of metamorphism; Grades, zones and facies of metamorphism; Metamorphic diffusion and differentiation; Metamorphism in relation to plate tectonics; Differentiation between metamorphism and metasomatism;

Introduction to polarizing microscope; Optical properties of opaque and non-opaque minerals in plane polarized light and under crossed nicol including metallic under reflected light; Description of optical properties of common rock forming minerals.



Part- II (50-marks)

I. Introduction to Geophysics

Definition and relation of geophysics with other sciences; Classification and brief description of various branches of geophysics such as seismology, geomagnetism, geoelectricity, tectonophysics, gravimetry, geo-thermy and geodesy; Introduction to various geophysical techniques for exploration of mineral deposits, oil and gas and subsurface water and engineering works;

II. Sequence Stratigraphy

Introduction, history, concept and significance of sequence stratigraphy; Data sources: seismic reflections, outcrops, well logs, core and seismic facies; Sea level changes, their causes and effects; Accommodation, eustatic and relative sea curve; Hierarchy of sequence stratigraphic elements; Types of sequences and systems tracts.

III. Petroleum Geology

The nature and classification of petroleum hydrocarbons, their origin, migration and accumulation; Source sediments, reservoir rocks, and trapping mechanism for oil and gas; Prospecting and exploration of oil and gas; Reservoir characteristics, drive mechanism, energy and pressure maintenance; Secondary and enhanced recovery; Introduction to Sedimentary Basins of Pakistan

IV. Engineering and Environmental Geology

Rock and soil mechanics and its application in civil engineering; Rock mass characteristics; Geotechnical studies of rocks and soils; Geological factors and strength of rocks; Study of geological factors in relation to the construction of buildings and foundations, roads, highways, tunnels, dams and bridges; Application of geophysical methods for site investigation; Construction materials; Mass movement, their causes and prevention.

Introduction to environmental geology; Management of natural resources; Global climatic changes; Environmental controls for erosion, desertification and coastal degradation; Geological hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, volcanoes, glaciers and shoreline processes, their remedial measures; Clean sources of energy; Industrial pollution, solid and liquid waste disposal, Introduction to environmental impact assessment and initial environmental examination.

V. Mineral and Energy Resources

Introduction of geological exploration/prospecting. Brief description of hydrocarbons, coal, gemstones, copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, chromite, manganese, salt, gypsum, bauxite, sulphur, barite, fluorite, clays, phosphorite, building and dimension stones, industrial rocks and m i n e r a l s , radioactive minerals and rocks with special reference to economic mineral deposits in Pakistan.
Origin, occurrence, and depositional environments of coal; coal Constitution and kinds of coals.Coal rank, grade and calorific value. Coal deposits of Pakistan with reference to Thar Coal. Geothermal energy resources of Pakistan.

VI. Economic and Applied Geology

Metallic and Non-metallic mineral resources of Pakistan. Mineral-based industries.
Overview of Recodec Copper. Radioactive minerals and their occurrences in Pakistan. Gemstones of Pakistan
Geology of Reservoirs, Dams .Highways and Tunnels. Major natural hazards and their Impact on the environment with special reference to Pakistan.