Gender Studies CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

GENDER STUDIES

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS-20
PART-I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR Questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL Marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one Place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART – II

Q. No. 2. Gender has multiple meanings. How do you deconstruct the word “GENDER”? (20)

Q. No. 3. How the colonial era influenced the status of women in subcontinent? (20)

Q. No. 4. ‘Language is gendered’, what does this imply? Explain with examples. (20)

Q. No. 5. Women need to be in leadership positions to pull more women into leadership roles. Is this suggestion that women need to “pull each other up” a useful one, or is that inappropriate preferential treatment? (20)

Q. No. 6. “For realizing, in letter and spirit, the ideals of a democratic welfare state, it is necessary to institute a system which fully guarantees human rights, generates conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights and provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights”. Critically evaluate the statement with special reference to Pakistan. (20)

Q. No. 7. Comment on the power and control relationship in gender based violence. (20)

Q.No. 8. Discuss the background of the two Oscar winning documentaries by Sharmeen Obaid. (20)

Psychology CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

PSYCHOLOGY

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS-20
PART-I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR Questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL Marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one Place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART – II

Q. No. 2. What is street smartness? How Gardner’s approach differs from the other theories of intelligence? (20)

Q. No. 3. What is the rationale behind using projective tests of personality? How TAT and Rorschach Ink Blot tests are different in terms of their structure and psychometric qualities? (20)

Q. No. 4. Enlist positive and negative symptoms along with different types of schizophrenia. Give the major plan of management of schizophrenia. (20)

Q. No. 5. How construct validity of psychological tests is determined by employing different psychometric procedures? (20)

Q. No. 6. How effectiveness of psychotherapy can be determined? Identify situations in which unconditional positive regard would be appropriate. How can CBT change the unhealthy state of a person? (20)

Q. No. 7. Why do we tend to explain causes of others and our own behaviors? Compare and contrast the different theories of attribution. (20)

Q.No. 8. Why are raw scores on a psychological test meaningless until interpreted with norms? Differentiate between developmental norms and within group norms with reference to major types of norms. (20)
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Sociology CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

SOCIOLOGY

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS-20
PART-I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR Questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL Marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one Place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART – II

Q. No. 2. Differentiate between social change and social structural changes. Discuss three key areas which need immediate attention of policy makers. (20)

Q. No. 3. Durkheim emphasized on the functional aspects of religion. However. we observe many instances of religious extremism in Pakistani society. Shed some light on the phenomenon. (20)

Q. No. 4. Do you think Karl Marx’s capitalist perspective is applicable to today’s world? Elaborate your answer by giving arguments. (20)

Q. No. 5. Max Weber used the term Verstehen for better understanding of social actions. Explain the significance of the concept by discussing two examples from social life. (20)

Q. No. 6. How can moral degeneration be scientifically studied? Delineate the entire research process for studying this phenomenon. (20)

Q. No. 7. Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative way of studying any social phenomenon. Elaborate by giving an example of each approach and how that can be inquired? (20)

Q.No. 8. Write notes on the following (10 each) (20)
(a) Types of society (b) Caste and Class Dynamics in Pakistan

International Relations CSS Paper I 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION 2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS 17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, PAPER I

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
Note: (i) Part II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART II

Q. No. 2. How do the Neo-Realist and Constructivist approaches differ over the study of state behavior in contemporary international politics? (20)

Q. No. 3. Describe the concept of Preemptive Self-Defense in the context of International Law and critically evaluate the legitimacy of US use of force against Iraq. (20)

Q. No. 4. What do you understand by International Political Economy? How it promotes economic dependency in the developing states? (20)

Q. No. 5. Define the concept of Strategic Culture and highlight the major determination of Pakistan’s Strategic Culture (20)

Q. No. 6. Explain the concept of Economic Liberation and relate its core interests with the concept of Neo-imperialism. (20)

Q. No. 7. Critically evaluate the US Indo-Pacific policy. Do you believe the current US strategies are aimed at containing growing economic super power China?. (20)

Q. No. 8. Describe the geo-strategic importance of Indian Ocean and highlight its impacts on Pakistan’s Maritime security. (20)
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Political Science CSS Paper I 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL SCIENCE, PAPER-I
TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II by selecting ONE Question from SECTION-I and THREE Questions from SECTION-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.
Part II
Section A
Q. No. 2. Why monistic or absolute concept of sovereignty has been abandoned? Analyze legal concept of sovereignty. (20)

Q. No. 3. Examine Montesquieu’s theory of separation of powers. Why has he been called “Aristotle” of the eighteenth century? Discuss. (20)

Q. No. 4. Critically analyze the Social Contract Theory of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. (20)

Q. No. 5. Examine the view that the Hegelian spirit is nothing but evolution of human consciousness to the realization of political maturity for global human coexistence. (20)

Section B

Q. No. 6. Critically examine the basic principles of Fascism. (20)

Q. No. 7. Bring clearly the difference between unitary and federal forms of government. (20)

Q. No. 8. Write short notes on the following:- (10 each) (20)
(a) Ibn e Khaldun’s concept of Asbiyah
(b) Marx’s theory of Class Struggle
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Political Science CSS Paper II 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

POLITICAL SCIENCE, PAPER-II

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II by selecting ONE Question from SECTION-A and THREE Questions from SECTION-B. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

PART II
SECTION A

Q. No. 2. Discuss the way in which globalization could promote regionalization as an adaptation. (20)

Q. No. 3. Under the Unitary State System, how does the local government system work in the UK? (20)

SECTION B

Q. No. 4. Critically evaluate the role of Post-World War II International Financial Regimes in the economic development of the less developed countries. (20)

Q. No. 5. Critically evaluate the role of Military in Turkish Politics. (20)

Q. No. 6. Discuss the powers and functions of China’s National People’s Congress. (20)

Q. No. 7. Make a comparative analysis of the Constitution of 1956 and amended Constitution of Pakistan 1973. (20)

Q. No. 8. In the Post World War II period, what were the important patterns of the Balance of Power? (20)

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Regional and Provincial Quota for recruitment to the civil posts under the Federal Government

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No. 4/10/2006-R-2
Islamabad, the 14th February, 2020

OFFICE MEMORANDUM

Subject: PROVINCIAL / REGIONAL QUOTAS FOR RECRUITMENT TO THE CIVIL POSTS UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

The undersigned is directed to state that the Provincial and Regional quotas prescribed in 2007 for direct recruitment to civil posts under the Federal Government vide Establishment Division’s O.M. No. 4/10/2006-R-II dated 12.02.2007 have been reviewed and it has been decided by the Federal Government that with immediate effect, the following merit and Provincial / regional quotas shall be observed in filling vacancies reserved for direct recruitment to posts under the Federal Government which are filled on All-Pakistan basis:-

Merit — 7.5%

Punjab (including Federal Area of Islamabad) — 50%

Sindh — 19%

The Share Sindh will be further Sub-allocated in the following ratio:

Urban areas namely
Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur 40 % of 19 % or 7.6 %

Rural areas i.e. rest of Sindh
excluding Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. 60% of 19% or 11.4 %

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa — 11.5%

Baluchistan — 6%

Newly merged Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa(Ex-FATA) — 3%
(This share shall not be merged into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and be observed independently for next 10 years in
conjunction with the ten-year Development Plan devised to
bring the Ex-FATA at par with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
socially and economically).

Gilgit-Baltistan — 1%

Azad Kashmir — 2%

( Masroor Hussain )
Section Officer

All Secretaries / Additional Secretaries Incharge
of Ministries / Divisions Islamabad/Rawalpindi

Computer Science CSS Paper I 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
COMPUTER SCIENCE, PAPER-I
TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II by selecting TWO questions from EACH SECTION. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART II
SECTION A

Q. No. 2. (a) Write a C / C++ program which implements binary logical ‘AND’, ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ gates. The program takes binary number and desired logical gate as inputs and outputs the desired output of the gate. (8)

(b) Write a C/C++ program which inputs a number from a user and prints Fibonacci series up to the number. (7)

(c ) Explain the concept of abstract class with an example. (5)

Q. No. 3. (a) Write standard ports for following services HTTP, FTP, SMTP, HTTPS, DNS. (4)

(b) Design an appropriate interface for citizen portal mobile application. The interface should contain different features which are part of the portal application. The Interface may contain different screens to support these features. (8)

(c ) If you are transferring a file over the Internet, would you prefer TCP or UDP as the underlying protocol. Explain. (4)

(d) If you are transferring live audio in real time over the Internet, would you prefer TCP or UDP as the underlying protocol. Explain. (4)

Q. No. 4. (a) Write a program to perform mathematical operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication on complex numbers. Each operation should be supported by a separate method. (8)

(b) How is object encapsulation useful? Explain. (4)

(c ) Write a program to convert numbers into words. For instance, if the user types 123, the program should give output one hundred and twenty three. The program should continue functioning until the user types quit. (4)

Q. No. 5. A university maintains records for students, Faculty, and academic record. Following three classes are part of the system
Student (ID, Name, Age, Address, Contact, Program, CGPA)
Teachers (ID, Name, Age, Address, Highest Degree, Subjects, Salary)
Courses (Semester, Course Code, Student ID, Teacher ID, Grade). All the data is stored in files.
(a) Draw a class diagram to represent the three classes and their relationships. (5)
(b) Write C++ program to compute the following: (15)
i. Add a student ii. Add a course iii. Find a student with respect to CGPA iv. Add a Teacher v. Update a student

SECTION B

Q. No. 6. John plans a Van service from new square (S) to the city harbor (T). The van service charges Rs. 16 per Km. There are numerous routes between the two points.

(a) In order to rip off his customers, John always wanted to use the longest path. To find the longest path, John evaluates all the possible paths and selects the longest path. Write an algorithm to select the longest path using this approach. (7)

(b) Compute the complexity of this algorithm and determine whether it is in P, NP, or NP complete. (3)

(c ) Write an algorithm to find a minimum distance between ‘S’ and ‘T’ (7)

(d) Derive the complexity of this algorithm. (3)

Q. No. 7. (a) How many tokens are there in the C code printf(“k – %d, &k – %x”, k, &k). (5)

(b) Create State Transition Table from the following graph (5)

(c ) Draw Finite State Automata which accepts following input: (4)
i. JIM ii. JMI iii. JJIIM iv. JJMMII

(d) Determine which of these inputs are valid for the FSM shown below: (6)
i. aaaaa ii. ababa iii. abcabc iv. abccba v. acbcd vi. acbcdcd

Q. No. 8. (a) Is P – NP? Comment. (4)
(b) Suppose you are representing a social network (such as facebook) as a graph. Devise an algorithm through which you can determine friends of friends. (7)
(c ) Explain the complexity of algorithm. (5)
(d) Optimal problems are generally NP hard problems. Is it appropriate to use heuristics based approaches? (4)

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International Relations CSS Paper II 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION 2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS 17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, PAPER II

Time Allowed: Three Hours
Part I (MCQS): Maximum 30 Minutes
Part I (MCQs) Maximum Marks = 20
Part II Maximum Marks = 80
Note: (i) Part II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART II

Q. No. 2. Discuss the core causes of “Bolshevik Revolution” in Russia and explain its fundamental political and socio-economic impact on the Western European politics. (20)

Q. No. 3. Critically analyze Samuel P. Huntington’s concept of “Class of Civilizations”. Define its main characteristics and explain its devastating consequences on the different leading civilizations of the nations. (20)

Q. No. 4. Discuss the moral imperative of “Indian Foreign Policy” with the contending spirit of “Panchsheel” and evaluate how much it helps to strengthen diplomatic objectives of the country’s foreign policy? (20)

Q. No. 5. Critically discuss main political, socio-economic and strategic hurdles between “Afghanistan-Pakistan Relations” and how can both countries come out from the Cold War scenario? (20)

Q. No. 6. Discuss the “Moral Dimensions of Pakistan’s Nuclear Programme”. Explain its essential features and justify the offensive gesture which maintained the national and regional strategic balance. (20)

Q. No. 7. Critically discuss the fundamental factors of “Greece Economic Crisis” which need huge financial assistance from European Union and IMP as a debt relief to create “a breathing space” to stabilize economy and explain out-of-the-box solution for the crisis ridden country.

Q. No. 8. Pakistan has formally joined Saudi Arabia’s led 34-state Islamic military alliance to contain terrorism and extremism in Southwest Asia. Critically discuss whether or not Pakistan participate in the newly found military alliance against terrorism and explain its political, socio-cultural and strategic implications on the country.

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Islamic Studies CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
ISLAMIC STUDIES

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

PART II

Q. No. 2. Describe the status and grade of “Tolerance and Forgiveness” in the life of the Holly Prophet (PBUH). (20)

Q. No. 3. Write a comprehensive note on the bravery and juridical wisdom of Hazrat Ali (R.A). (20)

Q. No. 4. “The last Sermon of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is the basic document for awakening of conscious of mankind for human rights”. Discuss. (20)

Q. No. 5. Discuss in detail the principles and terms and conditins for “Jihad” in the light of Quran and Sunnah. (20)

Q. No. 6. Analyze the Madina Accord as a “Social Contract” in detail. (20)

Q. No. 7. “Islam teaches the lesson of human respect and dignity irrespective of colour, race and creed”. Discuss. (20)

Q. No. 8. “Islamic Financial and Economic system is the solution of the human financial problems”. Discuss. (20)

Pakistan Affairs CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE-III
(PAKISTAN AFFAIRS)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS
PART I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

PART II
Q. No. 2. How the reform movement of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi influenced the history of Muslim India? (20)

Q. No. 3. China, Pakistan Russian cooperation will find suitable support mechanism in Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Elucidate. (20)

Q. No. 4. What are the major provisions of Simla Agreement (1972) between Pakistan and India? How it was helpful for establishment of durable peace in the region? (20)

Q. No. 5. What is meant by the term “Proxy War”? Are there any extrinsic factors at play in the internal security situation of Pakistan? (20)

Q. No. 6. Discuss the main features of Political culture of Pakistan. (20)

Q. No. 7. Pakistan’s energy crisis was due to the lack of strategy and political will. Discuss. (20)

Q. No. 8. Discuss revival of Pak-US relations in context of present US-Taliban peace process. (20)

General Science and Ability CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE – I (GENERAL SCIENCE AND ABILITY)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS PART – I (MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART- I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II by selecting TWO questions from EACH SECTION. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.

PART – II
(SECTION – A)

Q. 2. (a) On 2nd April 2012 an Avalanche hit a Pakistan military base in Gayari sector trapping 140 soldiers and civilians under deep snowing. What is Avalanche, describing its four types with focus on the most dangerous type? (5)
(b) What do you understand by Global Wind and Pressure patterns? Also explain wind and pressure features at higher altitude. (5)
(c) World largest earthquake was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey on 22 May 1960 in southern Chile Valdivia. What do you know about earthquakes? Also explain shallow focus and deep focus earthquakes. (5)
(d) Differentiate between the renewable and non renewable energy sources. Briefly explain Geothermal Energy and Hydro Electricity. (5)(20)

Q. 3. (a) What are pesticides? Explain their different types; why persistent pesticides are more lethal for mankind? (5)
(b) what are carbohydrates? Classify and give detail of each class with examples. (5)
(c ) Discuss different methods of food preservation. (5)
(d) Where and how fibre optics are used? Also write down their advantages and disadvantages. (5)(20)

Q. 4. (a) Briefly describe the various segments of atmosphere. How these segments are maintaining the earth radiation balance? (5)
(b) How does organic particulate matter enter the atmosphere? Also describe the sources. (5)
(c ) What is natural radioactivity? How is it different from artificial radioactivity? (5)
(d) What are the fossils? Discuss the importance of paleontology. (5)(20)

Q. 5. (a) What do you know about hepatitis? Describe its types and write down preservative measures. (5)
(b) Differentiate between Middle Latitude Cyclones and Tornadoes. (5)
(c ) What is open system interconnection (OSI) and describe its layers. (5)
(d) What is GPS? How does it work? (5)(20)

(SECTION – B)

Q. 6. (a) Tariq can do a tailoring job in 6 hours. Sajid does the same job in 4 hours. Irfan does it in 8 hours. Tariq and Sajid start doing the work. Sajid leaves after two hours and Irfan replaces him. How long would it take to complete the work? (5)
(b) Find the missing number to complete each sum
(a) 9 + 8 – 5 = 2 x (—-)
(b) 3 x 9 – 14 = 24 – (—-)
(c ) 15 – 3 x 12 = 41 + (—)
(d) 24 – 4 – 5 = 66 – (—)
(e) 8 * 6 – 10 + 3 – 7 = 6 – (—)

(c ) There are seven students in a group having ages 17,17,18,18,18,19,19. Calculate mean, median, mode and range of their ages. Also define these mentioned terms. (5)

(d) How does mental ability scales differ from IQ tests? (5)(20)

Q. 7. (a) Mushtaq, Pervaiz, Ehsan, Umair and Saleem are friends having different heights and weights. Mushtaq weighs four times as much as Pervaiz and Pervaiz weighs double than Ehsan. Ehsan weighs half as much as Umair and Umair weighs half as much as Saleem.
(i) Who is the heaviest among five friends?
(ii) Who is the second heaviest?
(iii) Who has the lowest weight?
(iv) Who are equal in weight?
(v) Mention the descending order.

(b) A farmer needs to build a boundary wall around his farm. If the area of the farm is 484 m2, what will be the total area of the wall if it is two meter high on three sides and three meter high on one side? (5)

(c ) Five girls A,B,C,D,E and four boys W,X,Y,Z have to go to a trip in three cars car-1, car-2 and car-3. The following restrictions for seating in car are to be observed
(i) Only three persons can sit in one car
(ii) At least one boy and one girl must be in each car
(iii) A and D should remain together
(iv) Z cannot sit with B or C in the same car
Distribute boys and girls in three cars. (5)

(d) What are social skills? Describe four cases of weak social skills. (5)(20)

Q. 8. (a) What do you understand by systematic sampling? Discuss its types. (5)
(b) Blood groups of inhabitants of a village were checked. It was found that 600 people possessed blood group A, 650 possessed blood group B, 550 had blood group AB and 200 have blood group O. Calculate the probability of having blood group B. (ii) Calculate the probability of having blood group O. (5)
(c ) A group of 50 men can construct a 20 kilometer road in 40 days. How long will 70 men take to complete the same length of road? (5)
(d) Zahid left a property worth Rs. 1,750,000. His family had to pay off a debt of Rs. 150,000. The rest of the money was distributed between a son and a daughter. How much did each child receive if the share of a son was double than that of a daughter? (5)(20)
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Current Affairs CSS Paper 2020

178 Views

FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION -2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE – II
(CURRENT AFFAIRS)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS (PART-I) 30 MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS:20
PART I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20
PART II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE: (i) Part II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page / Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

Part II

Q. No. 2. What impact global climate change will have on the water resources of Pakistan. How will it affect inter-provincial harmony? (20)

Q. No. 3. Why was Pakistan placed on the ‘Grey List’ of Financial Action Task Force (FATF)? What are the implications and what measures should Pakistan take to move out of this list? (20)

Q. No. 4. Given the volatile lockdown in Indian Occupied Kashmir, what are the viable policy choices available to Pakistan? What can Pakistan realistically do to ease the sufferings of Kashmiri people? (20)

Q. No. 5. Discuss the strategic contours of Indo-US evolving partnership and how will it impact Pakistan-US and Pakistan-China relations? (20)

Q. No. 6. Strategic competition in the Indo-Pacific region is increasingly becoming intense. Define the interests and role of US, China, India, Japan and Australia in the geopolitics of Indo-Pacific region. (20)

Q. No. 7. Discuss in detail the role of OIC, Arab league and GCC in the Middle East crises and conflicts. (20)

Q. No. 8. In view of the evolving global alignments and changing nature of major power relationships, what is the future of globalism and multilateralism? Discuss with examples. (20)

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English CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION – 2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

ENGLISH (PRECIS & COMPOSITION)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES
PART-I (MCQS) MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE:(i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Attempt ALL questions from PART-II.
(iii) All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.
(iv) Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. Paper.
(v) No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.
(vi) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.

PART I

Q. No. 1. SYNONYMS
01. Guile=slyness, decency, blame, mad
02. Essay=direct, compose, attempt, effort
03. Inception=incision, unending, beginning, growth
04. Expatriate=emigrant, displaced, infirm, male
05. Sinister=malevolent, sinful, ill-famed, occult
06. Contraption=intrigue, device, sticker, trend
07. Animosity=friendly, flow, enmity, vanity
08. Condone=trap, overlook, conform, desist
09. Plagiarism=copy, piracy, deviance, plague
10. Impeachment=indictment, castigation, contempt, charge

ANTONYMS
11. Eternity = heaven, transience, mundane, abstract
12. Pandemonium=platform, quietude, confusion, tension
13. Relinquish=assume, confer, leave, throw
14. Henpecked=meek, assertive, obedient, rebel
15. Consistency=anomaly, constant, regularity, errant
16. Laudable=extol, unworthy, ignorance, praise
17. Exaggeration=fabricate, understate, confab, curse
18. Extempore=sudden, prepared, imprint, frenzy
19. Hypothetical=unreal, unsound, actual, vague
20. Pooh-pooh=ridicule, reprehend, ravage, praise

PART II

Q. 2. write precis of the following passage and also suggest suitable title: (20)

Manto was a victim of some kind of social ambivalence that converged on self-righteousness, hypocrisy, and mental obtuseness. His detractors branded him as vulgar and obscene and implicated him into a long-drawn legal battle questioning the moral validity of his writings. Without being deterred by their negative tactics, he remained firm in his commitment to exploring the stark realities of life offensive to the conservative taste of some self-styled purists. In the line of Freud, he sought to unravel the mysteries of sex not in a abstract, non-earthly manner but in a palpable, fleshy permutation signifying his deep concern for the socially disabled and depressed classes of society, like petty wage-earners, pimps and prostitutes.

For Manto, man is neither an angel nor a devil, but a mix of both. His middle and lower middle class characters think, feel and act like human beings. Without feigning virtuosity, he was able to strike a rapport with his readers on some of the most vital socio-moral issues concerning them. As a realist, he was fully conscious of the yawning gap between appearance and reality, in fact, nothing vexed him more than a demonstrable duality in human behaviour at different levels of social hierarchy. He had an jaundiced view of man’s faults and follies. As a literary artist, he treated vulgarity discreetly — without ever sounding vulgar in the process. Like Joyce, Lawrence, and Caldwell, in Manto’s work too, men and women of the age find their own restlessness accurately mirrored. And like them, Manto was also ‘raised above his own self by his sombre enthusiasm’.

Q. 3. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. (20)

Globalization is viewed by its proponents as a process of cementing economic, cultural and political bonds between people of different countries of the world. One may regard it as a process by which they are welded into a single world society, to be termed as global society. It means internationalization of production and labour leading to integration of economies of developing and developed countries into the global economy. To quote Rosaberth M. Kanter, “The world is becoming a global shopping mall in which ideas and products are available everywhere at the same time.”

Globalization is a natural outcome of computer networking and electronic mass communication. Information technology has made it possible for nations of the world to contact one another beyond their national borders. Besides, globalization is also promoted through the growth and proliferation of multinational companies and corporations that operate as transporter networks. Anyhow the flow of capital technology and labour across the borders of countries has accentuated the process of globalization.

Deregulation, liberalism and privatization being assiduously pursued in the developing countries are some other manifestations of globalization. These countries are opening their economies to follow these trends. The size of the public sector is shrinking for the private sector to assume an increasingly important role in the economic development of the Third World countries. The downsizing of the public sector is in line with the spirit of market economy. This is suggested as a measure to cover up their fiscal deficit.

Questions: (4 marks each)
1. Define globalization.
2. What is electronic mass communication?
3. What does the term Third World denote?
4. What is privatization?
5. Explain ‘liberalism’ in the above context.

Q. 4. Correct only FIVE of the following: (10)
(i) I won him in the race.
(ii) He said that I am playing chess.
(iii) Unless you do not try, you will never succeed.
(iv) He wrote with ink.
(v) What country you belong to?
(vi) When he reaches to manhood, he will visit to England.
(vii) The new session commences from February 1st, 2020.
(viii) Please send this letter on my address.

Q. 5. (a) Punctuate the following text, where necessary. (5)

Letters between relatives and friends are called personal letters. The most important thing in such letters is the content. Don’t begin with a hackneyed phrase like I was delighted to get your letter received your letter or I have often thought of writing to you use a vigorous clear chatty style.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences (ONLY FIVE) after filling in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions. (5)
(i) I was annoyed — him.
(ii) This train is bound — Gujrat.
(iii) The pistol went — by accident.
(iv) He kept — asking silly questions.
(v) He was knocked — by the bus.
(vi) Do not meddle — my affairs.
(vii) The meeting was put — by the Chairman.
(viii) He rounded — his speech with a quote from Ghalib.

Q. 6. Use ONLY FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meanings. (10)

(i) To break the ice (ii) Nip in the bud (iii) See eye to eye with (iv) For good (v) Tamper with (vi) The small hours (vii) Keep up appearances (viii) Prima facie

Q. 7. Translate the following into English by keeping in view figurative / idiomatic expressions. (10)

دنیا کی ہر قوم کا نظام تعلیم اپنی قوم کے مزاج سے ہم آہنگ ہوتا ہے۔ جو قومی اور ملی مقاصد کی تشکیل و تکمیل کرتا ہے۔ اور قوم مطلوبہ مقاصد کے لیے سرگرم عمل رہتی ہے۔ چنانچہ کسی قوم کا نظام تعلیم وہ ہمہ گیر نظام تربیت ہے جس کے تحت قوم کے افراد کی ذہنی صلاحیتوں کو پروان چڑھانے اور ان کی سیرت و کردار کی تعمیر میں مدد ملتی ہے۔ نظام تعلیم افراد کی تربیت اس انداز سے کرتا ہے کہ افراد قوم کی تقدیر بدل دیتے ہیں۔

English Essay CSS Paper 2020

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION – 2020
FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BS-17
UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

ESSAY

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS: 100

NOTE:(i) Make an outline and write a COMPREHENSIVE ESSAY (2500-3000 words) on any ONE of the given topics. Make sure you use different forms of discourses. e.g. exposition, argumentation, description and narration. Credit will be given for organization. relevance and clarity.
(ii) No Page/Space be left blank between the answer. All the blank pages of Answer Be must be crossed.

1. Do we really need literature in our lives?

2. Women universities as agents of change.

3. Pakistan and the future of Kashmir cause.

4. Polarized politics: the issues and challenges of democracy in Pakistan.

5. Global power dynamics and Pakistan’s foreign policy.

6. Pakistan’s informal economy: the way forward.

7. Promoting tourism in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges.

8. I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it.

9. Is Pakistan ready for digital revolution?

10. IMF bailouts: roads to stability or recipes for disaster.

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Rohingya Crisis

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Introduction

The Rohingya are a majority-Muslim ethnic group who have lived in the Buddhist nation of Myanmar for centuries.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres described them as “one of, if not the, most discriminated people in the world”.

The Rohingya people have faced decades of systematic discrimination, statelessness and targeted violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar.

Effectively denied citizenship under the 1982 Citizenship Law in Myanmar, they are one of the largest stateless populations in the world.

There are an estimated 3.5 million Rohingya dispersed worldwide.

Before August 2017, the majority of the estimated one million Rohingya in Myanmar resided in Rakhine State, where they accounted for nearly a third of the population.

They differ from Myanmar’s dominant Buddhist groups ethnically, linguistically, and religiously.

Discriminatory policies of Myanmar’s predominantly Buddhist government since the late 1970s have compelled hundreds of thousands of Muslim Rohingya to flee their homes in the predominantly Buddhist country.

Most have crossed by land into Bangladesh, while others have taken to the sea to reach Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

Since late August 2017, more than 671,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled Burma’s Rakhine State to escape the military’s large-scale campaign of ethnic cleansing.

Rohingya in the world

History of Rohingya Crisis

Medieval Muslim Rakhine Kingdom

The Rohingya trace their origins in the region to the fifteenth century, when thousands of Muslims came to the former Arakan Kingdom.

In 1430 AD, Rakhine kingdom was founded, with its capital in Mrauk U.

Situated on the border between Buddhist and Muslim Asia, the city became one of Asia’s richest. In 1785 it came under Burmese control.

British Rule (1824-1948)

During the British rule , Muslim community in Rakhine expanded rapidly doubling from the 1880s to 1930s.

Expanding rice cultivation required significant labor, largely filled by Muslim workers from neighboring Bengal.

During World War II, Rakhine State was on the front line between the Japanese troops and allied forces. Muslims were mostly pro-British, while Rakhine Buddhists initially supported the Japanese.

Rohingya under Myanmar

After Myanmar’s independence from British rule in 1948, a Muslim rebellion erupted in Rakhine, demanding equal rights and an autonomous area, which was eventually defeated.

With the Military rule in 1962, rights of Rohingya were eroded.

In 1977, the Myanmar Government launched Operation Dragon King (Naga Min) in Rakhine state including mass arrests, persecution, and horrific violence, driving some 200,000 Rohingya across the border to Bangladesh. By 1979, most of the Rohingya were repatriated to Myanmar, however more than 10,000 children had died.

New citizenship law was passed by Myanmar in 1982, identified 135 national ethnic groups excluding Rohingya, effectively rendering them stateless.

In June 2012, violence left more than 200 dead and close to 150,000 Rohingya homeless. Between 2012 and 2015, more than 112,000 Rohingya fled, largely by boat to Malaysia.

In 2014, Myanmar conducted its first census in more than three decades but Rohingya were excluded.

In November 2015, the first democratic elections since the end of military rule were held. However, Rohingya were not allowed to participate as candidates, nor as voters. Suu Kyi’s party won and she became the de-facto leader in a power-sharing agreement with the military.

Myanmar ethnic groups

Rohingya Exodus 2016-17

On October 9, 2016 about 300 Rohingya men attacked border posts in Rakhine State, killing nine police officers, according to Myanmar state media.

Rohingya insurgent group, Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), claimed responsibility for the border post attack.

The attacks sparked an intense crackdown by the Myanmar military and triggered an exodus of 87,000 Rohingya to Bangladesh.

On August 25, 2017, Myanmar’s state media reported 12 security officers were killed by ARSA insurgents during a series of coordinated attacks targeting at least 20 police outposts and an army base in Rakhine State. Military responded with “clearance operations,” burning down villages and triggering a mass exodus of Rohingya to Bangladesh.

Entire villages were burned to the ground, families were separated and killed, and women and girls were gang raped. Most of the people who escaped were severely traumatized after witnessing unspeakable atrocities. More than 600,000 Rohingya refugees arrived in Bangladesh after fleeing violence in Myanmar. These people found temporary shelter in refugee camps around Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, which is now home to the world’s largest refugee camp.

Rohingya Villages destroyed

On September 19, 2017, Suu Kyi condemned any human rights violations but was widely criticized for failing to acknowledge the alleged atrocities by the military. Myanmar’s military repeatedly denied conducting atrocities, saying it is targeting terrorists.

In November 2017, Aung San Suu Kyi made her first visit to Rakhine since the crackdown and urged people “not to quarrel”.

In March 2018, Amnesty International reported that Myanmar’s military built bases in the places of Rohingya homes and mosques.

Rohingya and the United Nations

In October 2017, Army commander-in-chief, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, told US ambassador Scot Marciel that the Rohingya were not natives of Myanmar.

In July 2018, the UN set up a commission to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in Rakhine.

In a report based on 875 interviews with witnesses and victims, satellite imagery and verified photos and videos, the commission described the actions of the armed forces “undoubtedly amount to the gravest crimes under international law” and accused Myanmar’s military of carrying out mass killings and rapes with “genocidal intent”.

In October 2018, Marzuki Darusman, the chair of the United Nations fact-finding mission on Myanmar, stated the condition of Rohingya in Myanmar as an “ongoing genocide”.

The UN described the persecution as “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing”.

Myanmar’s Independent Commission of Enquiry (ICOE) admitted that members of the security forces may have carried out “war crimes, serious human rights violations, and violations of domestic law”, but claimed there was no evidence of genocide.

Inn Din Massacre

In January 2018, Myanmar soldiers murdered 10 captured Muslims in Inn Din and their bodies were discovered in the mass grave.

Two Reuters journalists – Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo – were detained in Yangon and accused of breaching the colonial-era Official Secrets Act. The two were working on an investigation into a massacre of Rohingya men at the village of Inn Din.

In April 2018, Myanmar jailed seven soldiers for the killings in Inn Din. Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo were sentenced to seven years in prison.

In May 2019, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo were freed under a presidential amnesty. A few days later, the soldiers jailed over Inn Din were also given early release.

Rohingya Refugees

In March 2019, Bangladesh announced it would no longer accept Rohingya fleeing Myanmar.

While an agreement for the return of refugees was reached in early 2018, none returned. They said they would not consider going back to Myanmar unless they were given guarantees they would be given citizenship.

As of March 2019, over 909,000 stateless Rohingya refugees reside in Ukhiya and Teknaf Upazilas. The vast majority live in 34 extremely congested camps, including the largest single site, the Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site, which is host to approximately 626,500 Rohingya refugees.

Refugee camps

Rohingya in International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Muslim-majority nation of The Gambia, in West Africa, on behalf of dozens of other Muslim countries, lodged the ICJ case and called for emergency measures to be taken against the Myanmar military, known as Tatmadaw, until a fuller investigation could be launched.

In December 2019, Aung San Suu Kyi, once a human rights icon, appeared at the court and rejected allegations of genocide.

In January 2020, the ICJ’s initial ruling ordered the Buddhist-majority country to take measures to protect members of its Rohingya community from genocide.

Current situation in Rakhine

UN investigators have warned that half a million Rohingya still living in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine province are at a “serious risk that genocidal actions may occur or recur”.

Continents

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Continents

A continent is a massive area of land that is separated from others by water or other natural features.

“Continent” derives from the Latin terra continēns [terra = “land”, continēns = present participle of the verb contineō = con ‎(“together”) + teneō ‎(“I hold”). The meaning is therefore ‎“land held together” or “connected land.”

The seven continents on Earth are: Africa, Asia, Antarctica, Europa, North America and South America and Oceania/Australia.

All the continents of the world start and end with the same alphabet if you consider North and South Americas as one continent.

Continents together cover one third (29%) of the world, with the oceans covering the other two thirds (71%).

Five of the seven continents are joined by land to another continent, while Antarctica and Australasia are separated from the others by oceans.

Each continent has a wide range of different landscapes, weather, and animal life.

Continents by Size are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia/Oceania

Continents by Population are: Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Australia/Oceania, Antarctica

#ContinentPopulation 2020Area (Km²)Density (P/Km²)World Pop Share
1Asia4,641,054,77531,033,13115059.54%
2Africa1,340,598,14729,648,4814517.20%
3Europe747,636,02622,134,900349.59%
4North America592,062,33521,329,979287.60%
5South America430,759,76617,461,112255.53%
6Australia/Oceania42,677,8138,486,46050.55%
7caribbean9,877214700.00%
7Antarctica013,720,00000.00%

7 Continents
Source: Worldmeters.info



ContinentHighest PointElevation mElevation ftCountryLowest PointElevation mElevation ftCountry
AsiaMount Everest8,84829,029China,NepalDead Sea−427−1,401Israel, Jordan and Palestine
South AmericaAconcagua6,96022,830ArgentinaLaguna del Carbón−105−344Argentina
North AmericaDenali6,19820,335United StatesDeath Valley †−86−282United States
AfricaMount Kilimanjaro5,89519,341TanzaniaLake Assal−155−509Djibouti
EuropeMount Elbrus5,64218,510RussiaCaspian Sea−28−92Russia
AntarcticaVinson Massif4,89216,050(none)Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills †−50−160(none)
AustraliaPuncak Jaya4,88416,024Indonesia (Papua)Lake Eyre−15−49Australia



Asia

Asia is the largest continent by land area (30% of the world’s land area) and by population (over 4 billion people or 60% of world’s population).

It contains the world’s largest country, Russia, and the world’s two most populous countries, China and India.

The Great Wall of China is the only man made structure that can be seen from space.

Asia is the birthplace of two great ancient civilizations – Harappan civilization and Chinese civilization.

Asia is the birthplace of world’s largest religions of Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity.

Continents Images Source: indiatoday.in



Africa

Africa is the second largest by area. Africa is the continent with the most (54) countries.

Since the oldest human fossils have been discovered in Africa, the continent is also called the ‘cradle of humankind’.

The continents terrain was inhabitable and remained unknown for thousands of years, earning it the name of ‘Dark Continent’

Africa is home to the world’s longest river Nile and and the world’s largest desert Sahara.

Africa provides 50% of the world’s gold, 95% of the world’s diamonds and 66% of the world’s chocolate.

North America

North America is home to the largest Christian population in the world.

America was named after the 16th century Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci and is also known as the “New World”.

Death Valley desert in California has the lowest elevation on the continent at almost 300 feet below sea level.

North America has five time zones and is the only continent with every type of climate.

North America was named after the explorer Americo Vespucci

North America’s population density at 22.9 per square kilometer is the highest

It is home to the largest freshwater lake in the world, Lake Superior.

The world’s third longest river – the Mississippi (3778 km) – is located in North America.

The world’s largest economy, the USA, is a part of North America.



South America

South America is a continent with the world’s longest mountain range – the Andes, world’s highest waterfalls (3,000 feet tall) – the Angel Falls and the world’s driest place Atacama Desert, Chile.

South America is also the home to the mighty anaconda, a huge snake that lives in the wetlands, can swim really well and likes to eat whole wild pigs.

The world’s largest river as per water volume and the second longest (6440 km) — the Amazon — is in South America

The highest volcanoes of the world — Mt. Cotopaxi and Mt. Chimborazo — are found on this continent.

South America has the largest salt lake in the world — Salar de Uyuni (Uyuni salt flats).

Antarctica

There are only research stations for scientists and no permanent settlements.

Antarctica is covered almost completely by ice. 90% of the planet’s ice is located on this continent, which also makes up 60% – 70% of the world’s freshwater supply. It is also called the White Continent or the Frozen Continent.

Antarctica is not only the coldest place on Earth but also the highest, driest, windiest and emptiest.

Before 1840, Antarctica was called ‘Terra Australis Incognita’ (‘the unknown southern land’).

Antarctica sees half a year of light and half a year of complete darkness – summer months of December to February give 24 hours of light, while the winter months of late March to late September are pitch dark the whole day
Summer temperatures in the Frozen Continent are around -35 degree C in the interior and 2 degree C at the coasts.

In the winters, it is -70 degree C in the interior and 2 degree C at the coasts.

Antarctica saw the coldest natural temperature ever recorded on Earth was -89 degree C.

Because of this sort of extreme temperature fluctuations, Antarctica is larger in winters by around 14.2 million square kilometers than in summers due to the ice formation around the periphery.

There are no time zones on this continent.



Europe

Europe is the wealthiest and richest continent.

Europe houses the two smallest countries in the world – Vatican City and Monaco.

Europe and Asia are parts of the same major landmass known as Eurasia.

Mt. Elbrus is the highest mountain and Volga is the longest river in Europe.

Europe is surrounded by water on three sides — Mediterranean Sea in the south, Atlantic Ocean in the west, and Arctic Ocean in the north.

Australia/Oceania

Oceania is the smallest continent of the planet.

The name Australia comes from the Latin word ‘australis’ meaning ‘southern’.

The world’s largest coral reef — the Great Barrier Reef — is around 2000 kilometers long along the Australian
coast.

Oceania is a common term used for the smaller land masses on the Pacific Ocean, primarily Australia, New Zealand,
and Papua New Guinea. It also includes the three island regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia (including the US state of Hawaii).

Oceana



Oceans

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Oceans

 

  1. Surface of the earth is divided into land and water. 
  2. Water body covering 71% (approximately 361 Million km2 or 139 Million sq mi) of the surface of the earth is known as Ocean.
  3. The total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers (320 million cu mi) with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters (12,100 ft).
  4. Even though Earth has one continuous body of saltwater, it is further divided into 5 oceans;
    1. the Pacific Ocean, 
    2. the Atlantic Ocean, 
    3. the Indian Ocean, 
    4. the Arctic Ocean and 
    5. the Southern Ocean.
  5. The World Ocean Day is celebrated every 8th of June.
  6. The mountain Mauna Kea in Hawaii rises 33,474 feet from its base. This would make it the tallest mountain in the world if its base wasn’t below sea level.
  7. Around 97 percent of the planet’s water is in the oceans.
  8. Around 80 percent of the world’s population lives within 60 miles of the ocean coast.
  9. The world’s longest mountain range is actually under the ocean and is called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  10. Oceans move water around the globe, helping to keep places from getting too hot or too cold and thus make earth’s climate habitable. Oceans absorb excess heat and CO2 from the atmosphere.
  11. About one million species of animals live in the ocean and 95% are invertebrates (without backbone).
  12. Zooplankton, one of the smallest animals on earth and only visible with a microscope is found in the Oceans.
  13. The largest animal ever to live on Earth is an ocean mammal called the blue whale. It’s as long as two school buses!.
  14. The ocean teems with plant life. Most are tiny algae called phytoplankton—and these microscopic plants have a big job. Through photosynthesis, they produce about half of the oxygen that humans and other land-dwelling creatures breathe.

 

#OceanArea (km2) (%)Volume (km3) (%)Avg. depth (m)Coastline (km)
1Pacific Ocean168,723,000 (46.6)669,880,000 (50.1)3,970135,663
2Atlantic Ocean85,133,000 (23.5)310,410,900 (23.3)3,646111,866
3Indian Ocean70,560,000 (19.5)264,000,000 (19.8)3,74166,526
4Southern Ocean21,960,000 (6.1)71,800,000 (5.4)3,27017,968
5Arctic Ocean15,558,000 (4.3)18,750,000 (1.4)1,20545,389
Total361,900,0001,335,000,0003,688377,412



Pacific Ocean

  1. The Pacific Ocean is the biggest ocean of the world and covers more than 30% of the Earth’s surface.
  2. The name ‘Pacific’ comes from the Latin word ‘pacificus’ which means peaceful. Thus, Pacific Ocean means ‘peaceful ocean’. However, the Pacific is not really calm and peaceful. 
  3. The ‘ring of fire‘ is a string of volcanoes in the Pacific basin which are still active and therefore many of the world’s major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen in this region.
  4. Challenger Deep, the lowest known point on earth, is located in the Pacific Ocean near Guam in the Philippine Sea at the end of the Mariana Trench. The depth recorded is 10,920m or 35,827 feet.
  5. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world and is located off the Australian coast in the Pacific Ocean.
  6. The largest island in the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea in the South Pacific.

Atlantic Ocean

  1. The Atlantic is the second biggest ocean in the world.
  2. It is located between the continents of America and Europe and Africa and is growing in size as it is spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Coasts.
  3. The Atlantic Ocean is about half the size of the Pacific Ocean and covers roughly 20% of the Earth’s surface.
  4. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the longest mountain range on Earth and spreads from Iceland to Antarctica beneath the Atlantic.

 

Indian Ocean

  1. The Indian Ocean is located between Africa and Austral-Asia.
  2. The Indian Ocean provides the largest breeding grounds of the world for humpback whales. 
  3. The Northern Indian Ocean also is the most important transport route for oil as it connects the oil-rich countries of the Middle East Each with Asia. Every day tankers are carrying a cargo of 17 million barrels of crude oil from the Persian Gulf on its waters.

 

Antarctic / Southern Ocean

  1. The Southern Ocean is located around the South Pole across the Antarctic circle in the Southern Hemisphere off Antarctica.
  2. The Southern Ocean is the home of Emperor Penguins and Wandering Albatrosses. 

 

Arctic Ocean

  1. The Arctic Ocean is located around the North Pole across the Arctic circle.
  2. There are many polar bears living on the Arctic ice.
  3. The Arctic Ocean’s ice cover is shrinking by 8% every ten years. 
  4. It is the smallest and shallowest of the world’s oceans.

 



The World by Income and Region

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The World Bank classifies all World Bank member countries (189), and all other economies with populations of more than 30,000.

For operational and analytical purposes, economies are divided among income groups according to 2018 gross national income (GNI) per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method.

The World Bank classifies economies for analytical purposes into four income groups: low income, $1,025 or less; lower middle income, $1,026 – 3,995; upper middle income, $3,996 – 12,375; and high income, $12,375 or more. The effective operational cutoff for IDA eligibility is $1,175 or less.

For this purpose it uses gross national income (GNI) per capita data in U.S. dollars

Countries are classified each year on July 1, based on the estimate of their GNI per capita for the previous calendar year.

Geographic classifications in this table cover all income levels.

IDA countries are those that lack the financial ability to borrow from IBRD.

The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Overseen by 173 shareholder nations, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing loans (called “credits”) and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities, and improve people’s living conditions.

IDA credits are deeply concessional—interest-free loans and grants for programs aimed at boosting economic growth and improving living conditions.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries. IBRD loans are noncessional.

Blend countries are eligible for IDA credits because of their low per capita incomes but are also eligible for IBRD because they are financially creditworthy.

The term country, used interchangeably with economy, does not imply political independence but refers to any territory for which authorities report separate social or economic statistics.

HIPC – Heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC)

Source: World Bank

The World by Income

The World by Region

The World by Income and Region

#EconomyCodeRegionIncome groupLending categoryOther
1AfghanistanAFGSouth AsiaLow incomeIDAHIPC
2AlbaniaALBEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
3AlgeriaDZAMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
4American SamoaASMEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income..
5AndorraANDEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
6AngolaAGOSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIBRD
7Antigua and BarbudaATGLatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
8ArgentinaARGLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
9ArmeniaARMEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
10ArubaABWLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
11AustraliaAUSEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
12AustriaAUTEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
13AzerbaijanAZEEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
14Bahamas, TheBHSLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
15BahrainBHRMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
16BangladeshBGDSouth AsiaLower middle incomeIDA
17BarbadosBRBLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
18BelarusBLREurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
19BelgiumBELEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
20BelizeBLZLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
21BeninBENSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
22BermudaBMUNorth AmericaHigh income..
23BhutanBTNSouth AsiaLower middle incomeIDA
24BoliviaBOLLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle incomeIBRDHIPC
25Bosnia and HerzegovinaBIHEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
26BotswanaBWASub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
27BrazilBRALatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
28British Virgin IslandsVGBLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
29Brunei DarussalamBRNEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
30BulgariaBGREurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
31Burkina FasoBFASub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
32BurundiBDISub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
33Cabo VerdeCPVSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlend
34CambodiaKHMEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
35CameroonCMRSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlendHIPC
36CanadaCANNorth AmericaHigh income..
37Cayman IslandsCYMLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
38Central African RepublicCAFSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
39ChadTCDSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
40Channel IslandsCHIEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
41ChileCHLLatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
42ChinaCHNEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIBRD
43ColombiaCOLLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
44ComorosCOMSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
45Congo, Dem. Rep.CODSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
46Congo, Rep.COGSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlendHIPC
47Costa RicaCRILatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
48Côte d'IvoireCIVSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
49CroatiaHRVEurope & Central AsiaHigh incomeIBRD
50CubaCUBLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income..
51CuraçaoCUWLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
52CyprusCYPEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
53Czech RepublicCZEEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
54DenmarkDNKEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
55DjiboutiDJIMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle incomeIDA
56DominicaDMALatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeBlend
57Dominican RepublicDOMLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
58EcuadorECULatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
59Egypt, Arab Rep.EGYMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle incomeIBRD
60El SalvadorSLVLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle incomeIBRD
61Equatorial GuineaGNQSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
62EritreaERISub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
63EstoniaESTEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
64EswatiniSWZSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIBRD
65EthiopiaETHSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
66Faroe IslandsFROEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
67FijiFJIEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeBlend
68FinlandFINEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
69FranceFRAEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
70French PolynesiaPYFEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
71GabonGABSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
72Gambia, TheGMBSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
73GeorgiaGEOEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
74GermanyDEUEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
75GhanaGHASub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
76GibraltarGIBEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
77GreeceGRCEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
78GreenlandGRLEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
79GrenadaGRDLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeBlend
80GuamGUMEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
81GuatemalaGTMLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
82GuineaGINSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
83Guinea-BissauGNBSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
84GuyanaGUYLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIDAHIPC
85HaitiHTILatin America & CaribbeanLow incomeIDAHIPC
86HondurasHNDLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
87Hong Kong SAR, ChinaHKGEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
88HungaryHUNEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
89IcelandISLEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
90IndiaINDSouth AsiaLower middle incomeIBRD
91IndonesiaIDNEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIBRD
92Iran, Islamic Rep.IRNMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
93IraqIRQMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
94IrelandIRLEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
95Isle of ManIMNEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
96IsraelISRMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
97ItalyITAEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
98JamaicaJAMLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
99JapanJPNEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
100JordanJORMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
101KazakhstanKAZEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
102KenyaKENSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlend
103KiribatiKIREast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
104Korea, Dem. People's Rep.PRKEast Asia & PacificLow income..
105Korea, Rep.KOREast Asia & PacificHigh income..
106KosovoXKXEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIDA
107KuwaitKWTMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
108Kyrgyz RepublicKGZEurope & Central AsiaLower middle incomeIDA
109Lao PDRLAOEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
110LatviaLVAEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
111LebanonLBNMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
112LesothoLSOSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDA
113LiberiaLBRSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
114LibyaLBYMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
115LiechtensteinLIEEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
116LithuaniaLTUEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
117LuxembourgLUXEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
118Macao SAR, ChinaMACEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
119MadagascarMDGSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
120MalawiMWISub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
121MalaysiaMYSEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIBRD
122MaldivesMDVSouth AsiaUpper middle incomeIDA
123MaliMLISub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
124MaltaMLTMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..EMU
125Marshall IslandsMHLEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIDA
126MauritaniaMRTSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
127MauritiusMUSSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
128MexicoMEXLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
129Micronesia, Fed. Sts.FSMEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
130MoldovaMDAEurope & Central AsiaLower middle incomeBlend
131MonacoMCOEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
132MongoliaMNGEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeBlend
133MontenegroMNEEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
134MoroccoMARMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle incomeIBRD
135MozambiqueMOZSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
136MyanmarMMREast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
137NamibiaNAMSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
138NauruNRUEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIBRD
139NepalNPLSouth AsiaLow incomeIDA
140NetherlandsNLDEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
141New CaledoniaNCLEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
142New ZealandNZLEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
143NicaraguaNICLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
144NigerNERSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
145NigeriaNGASub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlend
146North MacedoniaMKDEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
147Northern Mariana IslandsMNPEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
148NorwayNOREurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
149OmanOMNMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
150PakistanPAKSouth AsiaLower middle incomeBlend
151PalauPLWEast Asia & PacificHigh incomeIBRD
152PanamaPANLatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
153Papua New GuineaPNGEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeBlend
154ParaguayPRYLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
155PeruPERLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
156PhilippinesPHLEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIBRD
157PolandPOLEurope & Central AsiaHigh incomeIBRD
158PortugalPRTEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
159Puerto RicoPRILatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
160QatarQATMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
161RomaniaROUEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
162Russian FederationRUSEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
163RwandaRWASub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
164SamoaWSMEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIDA
165San MarinoSMREurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
166São Tomé and PrincipeSTPSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
167Saudi ArabiaSAUMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
168SenegalSENSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
169SerbiaSRBEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
170SeychellesSYCSub-Saharan AfricaHigh incomeIBRD
171Sierra LeoneSLESub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
172SingaporeSGPEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
173Sint Maarten (Dutch part)SXMLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
174Slovak RepublicSVKEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
175SloveniaSVNEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
176Solomon IslandsSLBEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
177SomaliaSOMSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
178South AfricaZAFSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle incomeIBRD
179South SudanSSDSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDA
180SpainESPEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..EMU
181Sri LankaLKASouth AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
182St. Kitts and NevisKNALatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
183St. LuciaLCALatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeBlend
184St. Martin (French part)MAFLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
185St. Vincent and the GrenadinesVCTLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeBlend
186SudanSDNSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
187SurinameSURLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
188SwedenSWEEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
189SwitzerlandCHEEurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
190Syrian Arab RepublicSYRMiddle East & North AfricaLow incomeIDA
191Taiwan, ChinaTWNEast Asia & PacificHigh income..
192TajikistanTJKEurope & Central AsiaLow incomeIDA
193TanzaniaTZASub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
194ThailandTHAEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIBRD
195Timor-LesteTLSEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeBlend
196TogoTGOSub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
197TongaTONEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIDA
198Trinidad and TobagoTTOLatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
199TunisiaTUNMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle incomeIBRD
200TurkeyTUREurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
201TurkmenistanTKMEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle incomeIBRD
202Turks and Caicos IslandsTCALatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
203TuvaluTUVEast Asia & PacificUpper middle incomeIDA
204UgandaUGASub-Saharan AfricaLow incomeIDAHIPC
205UkraineUKREurope & Central AsiaLower middle incomeIBRD
206United Arab EmiratesAREMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income..
207United KingdomGBREurope & Central AsiaHigh income..
208United StatesUSANorth AmericaHigh income..
209UruguayURYLatin America & CaribbeanHigh incomeIBRD
210UzbekistanUZBEurope & Central AsiaLower middle incomeBlend
211VanuatuVUTEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIDA
212Venezuela, RBVENLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle incomeIBRD
213VietnamVNMEast Asia & PacificLower middle incomeIBRD
214Virgin Islands (U.S.)VIRLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income..
215West Bank and GazaPSEMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle income..
216Yemen, Rep.YEMMiddle East & North AfricaLow incomeIDA
217ZambiaZMBSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeIDAHIPC
218ZimbabweZWESub-Saharan AfricaLower middle incomeBlend



China Pakistan Relations

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Introduction

China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC) regime on Mainland China. Since then, both countries have placed considerable importance on the maintenance of an extremely close and supportive special relationship and the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements.

The PRC has provided economic, military, and technical assistance to Pakistan, and each country considers the other a close strategic ally.

Bilateral relations have evolved from an initial Chinese policy of neutrality to a partnership with a smaller but militarily powerful Pakistan. Diplomatic relations were established in 1950, boundary issues resolved in 1963, military assistance began in 1966, a strategic alliance was formed in 1972, and economic co-operation began in 1979.

China has become Pakistan’s largest supplier of arms and its third-largest trading partner.

Maintaining close relations with China is a central part of Pakistan’s foreign policy.

Pakistan has served as China’s main bridge to the Islamic world, and also played an important role in bridging the communication gap between the PRC and the West by facilitating U.S. President Richard Nixon’s historic 1972 visit to China.

The relations between Pakistan and China have been described by Pakistan’s ambassador to China as “higher than the mountains, deeper than the oceans, stronger than steel, dearer than eyesight, sweeter than honey, and so on.”

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 75% of Pakistanis view China’s influence positively with only 15% expressing a negative view. In the Asia-Pacific region, Chinese people hold the third most positive opinions of Pakistan’s influence in the world, behind Indonesia and Pakistan itself.

‘If you love China, love Pakistan too.’ – Li Keqiang, Premier of the People’s Republic of China

Historical Relations

Buddhist monks from the area of what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan were involved in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism to Han dynasty China. The Han dynasty’s Protectorate of the Western Regions bordered the Kushan Empire. Faxian traveled in what is now modern-day Pakistan.

1947 to 1979

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951, shortly after the Republic of China lost power in the Mainland in 1949. While initially ambivalent towards the idea of a Communist country on its borders, Pakistan hoped that China would serve as a counterweight to Indian influence. Pakistan becomes the third non-communist country, and first Muslim one, to recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

In 1956, Pakistani Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signed the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan, marking closer bilateral ties.

With escalating border tensions leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian war, China and Pakistan aligned with each other in a joint effort to counter India and the Soviet Union as both have border disputes with India.

One year after China’s border war with India, Pakistan ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract to China to end border disputes and improve diplomatic relations in 1963.
Pakistan helps the U.S. arrange the 1972 Nixon visit to China.

1978 – The Karakoram Highway linking the mountainous Northern Pakistan with Western China officially opened in 1978.

1980 – 2000

China and the U.S. provided support through Pakistan to the Afghan guerillas fighting Soviet forces in the 1980s.

China and Pakistan reached a comprehensive nuclear co-operation agreement in 1986.

Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited Pakistan in 1996.

A 300-megawatt nuclear power plant, built with Chinese help in Punjab province, was completed in 1999.

2001 to 2010

A joint-ventured Chinese-Pakistani tank, the MBT-2000 (Al-Khalid) MBT was completed in 2001.

The building of the Gwadar deep sea port began, with China as the primary investor in 2002.

Pakistan and China signed a $110 million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore in 2003.

The Sino-Pakistani joint-ventured multirole fighter aircraft – the JF-17 Thunder (FC-1 Fierce Dragon) was formally rolled out in 2007.

China and Pakistan signed a free trade agreement in 2008.

The F-22P frigate, came into service with the Pakistani Navy in 2008.

The ISI arrested several suspected Uyghur terrorists seeking refuge in Pakistan in 2009.

Pakistan and China conducted a joint anti-terrorism drill in 2010.

China donated $260 million in dollars to flood-struck Pakistan and sent 4 military rescue helicopters to assist in rescue operations in 2010.

Wen Jiabao visited Pakistan and more than 30 billion dollars worth of deals were signed in 2010.

2011 to date

Trade between China and Pakistan hit a 12-month figure of $12 billion for the first time in 2012.

Management of Gwadar Port was handed over to state-run Chinese Overseas Port Holdings after previously being managed by Singapore’s PSA International in 2013.
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang visited Pakistan in 2013.

On 5 July 2013, Pakistan and China approved the Pak-China Economic Corridor (CPEC) which would link Pakistan’s Gwadar Port on the Arabian Sea and Kashgar in Xinjiang in northwest China. The $18 billion project would also includes the construction of a 200 km-long tunnel.

On 24 December 2013, China announced a commitment $6.5 billion to finance the construction of a major nuclear power project in Karachi, the project which would have two reactors with a capacity of 1,100 megawatts each.

Chinese Premier announced investment of $31.5 billion in Pakistan mainly in countries energy, infrastructure and port expansion for Gwadar in 2014. The projects included Lahore-Karachi motorway, Gwadar Port expansion and energy sector projects in Gadani and six coal projects near Thar coalfield.

On 22 May 2014, the governments of Pakistan and China signed an agreement to start a 27.1 km long metro train project in Lahore – named Orange Line – at the cost of $1.27 billion.

On 8 November 2014, Pakistan and China signed 19 agreements particularly relating to China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, China pledged a total investment worth of $42 billion. While Pakistan pledged to help China in its fight concerning the Xinjiang conflict.

On 20 April 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping, accompanied by the First Lady and a delegation of high-level officials and businessmen, visits Pakistan. It is the first visit to Pakistan by a Chinese president after a gap of 9 years and the first foreign trip of Xi in 2015. 51 Memorandums of Understanding are signed, including the plan of “Pakistan China Economic Corridor”.

China Supported Pakistan’s stance in the Kashmir in the aftermath of Pulwama Attack.

China has helped Pakistan in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) meetings to avoid blacklisting.